4121 – AKLIDES® Triple
The AKLIDES® Triple is an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies (ANA / AMA / ASMA / APCA) in human serum on rat liver, stomach and kidney tissue sections. The AKLIDES® Triple is intended as an aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory findings.
The appearance of autoantibodies directed against components of the cell nucleus are characteristic features of systemic autoimmune diseases, especially; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren’s syndrome, progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and dermatomyositis. These antibodies obstruct the cellular and/or humoral immunological reaction, which normally occur against external influences, and may under certain circumstances turn against the body itself and thereby cause various disorders – autoimmune diseases. Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) majorly interact with the inner membrane of the mitochondria, which is rich in phospholipids. The appearance of AMA is mostly evident with diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis, pseudo-lupus-erythematosus-syndrome and different forms of chronic aggressive hepatitis. As a diagnostic hint, elevated AMA titres are mainly found with non-suppurating gallbladder infections or primary biliary. In such cases, antibodies are seen prior to the clinical manifestations and will hardly be influenced by therapy during the course of the disease. Reduced antibody titres are observed with scleroderma, Sjörgen syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune disorders. Antibodies against smooth, unstriated muscle occur in different liver diseases, especially in acute and chronic hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and other forms of liver cirrhosis. In addition, the detection of ASMA supports the diagnosis of SLE, breast and ovarian carcinoma, infectious mononucleosis, and malignant melanomas. Pernicious anaemia is generally due to circulating antibodies against the structures of the parietal cell of the gastric mucosa. In any case, they may also be detected with other diseases of the stomach such as chronic atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, diseases of the thyroid (Hashimoto´s thyroiditis, myxoedema), and rarely with hypoferric anaemia, diabetes mellitus and in older patients.
The IFA (indirect immunofluorescence assay) is an immunoassay for the determination of specific antibodies. Tissue sections or cells containing the antigen of interest are immobilized on slides. If specific antibodies are present in the patient´s sample, they bind to the antigen in the tissue. A secondary antibody conjugated with fluorescein-isothiocyanat (FITC) detects the generated immune complex. The slides are examined using a fluorescence microscope. A specific fluorescent staining pattern demonstrates the presence of specific antibodies in the patient´s sample.
The immunoassay is designed for manual processing and automated imaging using the AKLIDES® or akiron® system.
Worldwide first and fully automated system, AKLIDES® digital fluorescence microscope is used for the standardized imaging and data processing in immunofluorescence tests on glass slides. Controlled by the AKLIDES® Software, the AKLIDES® system has the ability to produce valid standardized analyses and to document immunofluorescence assays electronically to augment daily laboratory routine in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases.
The immunoassay is designed for professional in vitro diagnostic use.
|Description||Indirect immunofluorescence assay for the determination of IgG antibodies in human serum against smooth muscle|
|Format||Slides coated with cryostat tissue sections of rat liver, stomach and kidney|
|Incubation time||60 min.|
|Sample volume||10 µL serum|
|No. of determinations||48 (12 x 4)|